As per Lord Shiva's wish Brahma took his lineage from Brighu vamsa as Baskaracharya
and reached the shores of River Godhavari and ordered the divine architect Viswakarma
to establish a city. Brahma was ordained to be the preceptor of Vysyas and was known
as Sri Baskaracharya. He was the teacher and guiding star of the community.
Vysyas look his advice on religion, cultural and social matters. Viswakarma built
the city of Penugonda on the banks of Godhavari with assistance from Kuber.
The land (country) was divided into Ashtadasa mandala (18 units) for the purpose
of administration. The units were called Dharma, Dhanatha, Panchala, Nirvathya,
Jagannadha, Ksheera, Kasara, Yala, Gantasala, Thriguna, Ganna, Bhima, Vishala, Kalinga,
Narasinga, Veeranarayanna, Achanda & Thandlur. It was their firm belief that these
eighteen divisions prospered under the eighteen hands of Adhisakthi Parvathi.
The city of Penugonda had I2 pradhana marga and 16 upamarga. They were straight
like Suns rays. The southern side of the state was bounded by sea with a natural
harbour. The Vysya community consisting of 714 gothras lived and prospered
in the region, blessed with kubhera kataksham, arable lands and cattle wealth. (Dhanam,
Dhanyam and Coh-sampath) A temple dedicated to Lord Shiva and Goddess was situated
in the centre of the city. The presiding deities were worshipped as sri Nagareswara
andSri Vindhyavasini. Another temple for Sri Janardhana and his consort Sri Konakamala
Devi was established nearby.
The city had a number of buildings; main entrance had huge Carved out of wooden
doors and a threshold. The Figure Gajalakshmi beautifully carved out of mahaghani
wood adorned the cornice.Single Door with Decorations to match the threshold and
side panels was moving on hinges.Two small triangle shaped dug outs on either side
of the door way on the walls were provided for two oil lamps to be lit in the evenings.Sitouts
(thinnai) were provided on the either side of the enterance for the people to sit
and chat. Some of the houses were tiled and some had one storey or two. A kind of
architectural system known as Vastu sastra was religiously followed in constructing
a house. The main door had an opposite door provided leading to the backyard and
served as crossventilation. The kitchen was provided inAgni moola i.e., onSouth
The house was divided carefully into one, two or three (quadrangles) square portions
with an opening in the centre allowing plenty of sun, lightand air- Living rooms
were constructed on either side of the central opening. A special varanda(servicepath)
led to the second and third portions known as koodam in Tamil and kottam in Telugu.
Deities or pictures of Gods and Goddess were placed facing East in a secluded area
and worshipped. A small octagonal structure beautifully got up called 'Thulasi kota'
or 'Thulasi Brivandan' which means the abode for the Thulasi plant was erected on
the eastern side of the house or in the backyard. A cow shed with milch cows and
calves was a must during the hey days of Penugonda. The cow was worshipped as Kamadhenu
and Lakshmi. The chief lady of the house used to adorn the cow with turmeric paste
and vermilion on its face, hump, tail and on four legs. The lady used to offer fruits
like banana, wet raw rice and jaggery in a fray to the cow and offer pooja. The
cows were individually christened as Lakshmi, Saraswathi, Parvathi, Ganga, Yamuna
and the like. They were accustomed to come before the lady of the house to receive
a fruit or Agathi keerai when called individually.
The life of Vysyaa in Penugonda commenced when they were delivered by the sacred
cow, kamadhenu on the banks of Pulasyatheertham, on the Predetermined day. kamadhenu
was an universe by herself and afforded all comforts to the community who came out
of Mount Kailash.
After the arrival of vysyas under the leadership of Samadhimuni at Penugonda Sri
Baskara Charyulu blessed them as husband and wife according to their (poorvajanma)
previous birth.The clan spread far and wide into eighteen mandalas.
Vudhvaha was the first administrator of the city state of Penugonda, created by
divine architect Viswakarma with liberal help from Kubher.
The city of Penugonda with paved streets and well managed water system depicted
the economic prosperity of the land. The two tall temple gopurams of Sri Nagareswara
and Sri Janardhana exhibited the amity and tolerance between the two great religions
Saivism and Vaishnavism. The sculptures and the style of construction were oriental
and according to the agamasastra and Hindu way of cultural life.
The port on the south of the state presented a wonderful sight, having a number
of vessels of different dimensions and various patterns.moored side by side. The
flags fluttering on them represented their countries origin. The whole country was
endowed with agriculture, horticulture and cattle wealth. The farm products and
milk products were plenty and the country was Sowing with milk and honey. Rathnapuri
and Vishala were the centres of commercial importance. They had many merchants who
were dealing in spices of exportable quality, (even Gods liked them) precious and
semi-precious gems of alluring nature. High rise buildings of the rich and the famous
were the land marks of the town.
The chieftain Kusumasreshti was the devotee of Sri Nagareswara and Sri Vindhyavasini.
Kusumarya was 16th in the line of succession to Samadhimuni; His rule was considered
as a golden era. He was well supported by his council of ministers. Kusumagupta's
ships sailed the southern seas. He was married to Kausambi and lived happily. They
were childless. Their preceptor Baskaracharya advised them to perform a putrakameshti
yagam. The yagna was performed for seven days.
Kusumarya was the central figure of the epic Vasavi Charithra, who was born and
reborn to fulfil the curse. The boon he had was to be father of Ahimsa Jothi
the incarnation of Goddess Parvathi
On the seventh day of yagna. Goddess Sarvani appeared, presented a kalpaga twin fruit
to Kosumarya and disappeared. On the advice of preceptor Baskaracharya he gave the
twin fruit of love and affection to his wife Kausambi. She consumed the fruit with
all reverence. The loving care of the husband and the effect of the divine fruit
made Kausambi a mother of twins - a boy and a girl. The year was Nala and the month
was visaka and the day was Suddha Dhasami. On Friday and under the natal star punarvasu
IVth pada the twins were Born. As the Vysya custom would have it the naming ceremony
(Namakarnam) was performed on he 11th day. Kusumarya offered the brahmin Pandits
and the poor food, clothing and gold coins behoving his status. Akashvani, the divine
voice christened the boy as Virupaksha and the baby girl as Vasavi.
The children grew up under parental care.
Virupaksha was initiated to Gayathri japa by Sri baskaracharya at the age of eleven.
He had his guru kula vasam (schooling) under the guidance of the preceptor. Virupaksha
was taught dharmasastra, political science and martial arts like sword fighting
and horse riding.